"SELF-LIMITED DIETS IN CHILDREN WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS"
The CDC (2014) reports, that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) impacts 1 in 68 children in the United States. They also indicate that in “cluster” states such as New Jersey, as many as 1 in 28 boys are affected. Children with ASD often present with comorbid feeding issues. Studies show that up to seventy percent of children with ASD are selective eaters and up to ninety percent have feeding problems (Volkert & M Vaz, 2010). Researchers at Marcus Autism Center and the Department of Pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of all published, peer-reviewed research relating to feeding problems and autism. Examination of dietary nutrients showed significantly lower intake of calcium and protein and a higher number of nutritional deficits overall among children with autism (Korschun & Edwards, 2013).
Researchers are exploring the possible causes of ASD, but thus far there are many theories regarding this complex disorder, ranging from genetics to autoimmune dysregulation (Merkel-Walsh, 2012). There is also debate regarding methods of treatment for children with autism. Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) has the most empirical research to date. Behavior analysis is a scientifically validated approach to understanding behavior and how it is affected by the environment (Autism Speaks, 2014). It has been endorsed by a number of state and federal agencies, including the U.S. Surgeon General and the New York State Department of Health. (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber, & Kincaid , 2003). Research has shown that ABA therapy is effective at increasing appropriate behaviors and decreasing inappropriate behaviors (Kodak & Piazza, 2008). Therefore, it is reasonable to believe the principles on which ABA techniques are based can help with feeding issues (Volkert & M Vaz, 2010). The problem is that behavioral therapies however, do not often take into account the complexity of the sensory-motor system or medical issues, and how they relate to self-limited diets in children with ASD.
This article explores 1) the sensory-motor system as it relates to feeding, 2) the importance of a thorough assessment; 3) biomedical treatment approaches for children with ASD, 4) Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) and its’ relevance when treating sensory-motor based feeding disorders in children with ASD.
Numerous texts, journal articles, print articles, internet articles and clinical presentations were reviewed in order to collect information on the etiology, treatment and outcomes of feeding therapy for self-limited diets with children on the autism spectrum, who have comorbid feeding issues. The authors explored current research in speech - language pathology, biomedical and holistic medicine, nutrition, and Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA). The authors also looked at case studies and the factors that may have influenced the diets of three children with ASD, who seemingly had behavioral issues, but when assessed presented with structural, medical and /or sensory-motor issues.
The authors found that self-limited diets are often not purely behavioral in nature, and there is a future need for more peer reviewed research on this topic.
Read the full monograph here.
Robyn Merkel-Walsh, MA, CCC-SLP has specialized for over 21 years in Oral Placement and myofunctional disorders in children. She is employed by the Ridgefield Board of Education, runs a private practice in Ridgefield, NJ, is the board chair of the Oral Motor Institute, and is a member of the TalkTools® speakers bureau.
Meet her in Washington, DC May 14, 2016, in Syracuse, NY June 4, 2016, in Minneapolis, MN July 8-10, 2016. See our full Event Calendar here.
Lori Overland, MS, CCC-SLP is a speech and language pathologist with more than 35 years of professional experience. She specializes in dealing with the unique needs of infants, toddlers, pre-schoolers and school-aged children with oral sensory-motor, feeding and oral placement/speech disorders. In addition to her private practice, Lori is a member of the TalkTools® speakers bureau.