Throat Scope Is Coming To TalkTools!

Posted by Deborah Grauzam on

We are proud to announce that Throat Scope products will be arriving to TalkTools soon and are now available for pre-sale!

Throat Scope is brought to you exclusively by TalkTools from Australia, where Jennifer Holland developed this revolutionary tool after suffering from bad experiences with classic tongue depressors with her daughter. She appeared on "Shark Tank Australia" Episode 2, launched, patented and introduced her product to the world, now brought to the United States by TalkTools.

TalkTools - Throat Scope TalkTools - Throat Scope 

Throat Scope is an illuminated tongue depressor designed to replace the use of separate flash lights and tongue depressors for convenient one-handed operations. It is composed of a reusable handle that can be disinfected between uses, and disposable, clear plastic blades. The handle has 3 powerful long-life LED lights that are automatically activated when a blade is inserted.

Oral cavity examination can be stressful for the patient and parents, the latest often asked to restrain the child while providers use two hands for the examination. This new device allows the provider to use a free hand to hold the patient in place or else, and can even be fun for patients. "Kids will think this is a lightsaber!" said Steve Baxter on Shark Tank Australia. The source of light located inside the mouth also allows better accuracy.

TalkTools - Throat Scope TalkTools - Throat Scope

Throat Scope is sold by TalkTools as a set of one handle and two blades, battery included. Boxes of 50 blades can be purchased separately.

Pre-order your Throat Scope and Box of 50 blades today and have them shipped Monday, February 27.

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    An interview with Diane Bahr, MS, CCC-SLP, CIMI before her first TalkTools Workshop

    Posted by Deborah Grauzam on

    While Diane Bahr’s first workshop with TalkTools is approaching, we wanted to highlight her recent addition to the team.

    TalkTools: What was your first encounter with Oral Placement Therapy (OPT)?

    Diane:  I took courses with Sara Rosenfeld-Johnson and Lori Overland when they were first teaching workshops. I have been using TalkTools products and programs in my own treatment, as well as teaching about them in my graduate course and continuing education ever since.

    TalkTools: You contributed to several publications about OPT since then. Can you tell us more about them?

    Diane: Absolutely. Firstly, Sara and I wrote the first article using the terms OPD and OPT: “Treatment of Children With Speech Oral Placement Disorders (OPDs): A Paradigm Emerges.” You will also see my name on the acknowledgement page in Oral Placement Therapy for Speech Clarity and Feeding, as well as the Introduction to the 4th edition. Sara mentions me as well in her acknowledgement page in Oral Placement Therapy (OPT) for /s/ and /z/, and Lori in A Sensory Motor Approach to FeedingSo, I have a long history of helping and supporting the work of TalkTools.

    TalkTools: Why did you decide to join the TalkTools team?

    Diane: Sara had invited me to join the team many years ago, but we were working through the oral sensory-motor controversy and decided to work separately until we had some resolution. We now seem to have this resolution particularly with Ray Kent’s 2015 article and all of the orofacial myofunctional research that is coming out around the globe. I decided to join the TalkTools team now because the timing is right. Both my textbook (Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment: Ages and Stages, 2001) and my parent-professional book [Nobody Ever Told Me (or my mother) That!, 2010] discuss the work of TalkTools.

    TalkTools: How is your workshop going to help therapists?

    Diane: My 15-hour workshop “Integrated Treatment of Feeding, Speech and Mouth Function in Pediatrics” can be taken either by therapists new to TalkTools who want an introduction or by therapists who have taken TalkTools workshops and want integration regarding the many aspects of oral sensory-motor treatment (i.e., feeding, motor speech, and mouth development/function). My course was a graduate course for many years, and I have been teaching it in continuing education since 1989. The goal of this workshop is to help all therapists integrate the wealth of oral sensory-motor information (re. feeding, motor-speech, and mouth development/function) that is currently available. I keep the workshop updated with the newest and best information I can find. Basically, I have spent 33 of my 36 year career studying and doing oral sensory-motor treatment.

    TalkTools: Thank you and welcome to the TalkTools team!

    TalkTools | Diane Bahr
    Diane Bahr is a certified Speech-Language Pathologist and infant massage instructor. She has practiced Speech-Language Pathology since 1980 and has been a feeding therapist since 1983. Her experiences include teaching Graduate, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education courses; working with children and adults who exhibit a variety of speech, language, feeding, and swallowing disorders; and publishing/presenting information on oral sensory-motor function, assessment and treatment. She is the author of the textbook Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment: Ages and Stages (Allyn & Bacon, 2001). She has also written a book for parents entitled Nobody Ever Told Me (Or My Mother) That! Everything from Bottles and Breathing to Healthy Speech Development (Sensory World, 2010). Diane maintains a private practice, writes articles appearing in a variety of publications, is interviewed frequently on radio and in magazines, and is an international presenter.

    She will be teaching the workshop “Integrated Treatment of Feeding, Speech and Mouth Function in Pediatrics” offered for 1.5 ASHA & AOTA approved CEUs on December 8-10, 2016 in New York, NY. Learn more and register here.

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    Van Riper is Alive and Well at ASHA Connect! (repost)

    Posted by Deborah Grauzam on

    This is a repost from Ages and Stages Blog, owned by Diane Bahr, MS, CCC-SLP, CIMI.

    As reported by Robyn Merkel-Walsh MA, CCC-SLP in New Jersey, USA

    August 2016

    The ASHA Connect conference was held in Minneapolis, MN July 8th-10th, 2016. This conference was a new concept bringing together school, private practice, and healthcare speech-language pathologists (SLPs). SLPs from across North America and Puerto Rico joined together in this process. They could select a track/area of interest, or choose various classes from either track. As a speech-language pathologist who works both in the schools and in private practice, this was a perfect combination of choices for me. Course selections ranged from service delivery models to school law. The exhibit hall included products and literature across the lifespan for a variety of disorders. Being an oral sensory-motor, placement, and feeding specialist, I am always looking to find what courses will support or negate the work that I do. After all, to be on top of Evidenced Based Practice, one must be willing to listen to challenging opinions and hypotheses.

    At this conference, I presented a poster looking at “A Modern Look at Van Riper’s Phonetic Placement Approach.” This poster explored 1) traditional versus phonological therapy, 2) the sensory-motor system as it relates to speech, 3) the importance of tactile and proprioception in articulation therapy, and 4) shaping placement of the articulators to improve speech clarity. Therapists were very interested in the visual aspects of this poster which showed historical tactile therapy tools such as feathers and matchbooks, versus modern day therapy tools such as TalkTools Bite Blocks and therapeutic straws.

    In the poster session, participants learned about two widely-used models of articulation therapy, that is the traditional and phonological models (Bowen, 2005). While some studies suggest the phonological model may have more positive results than the traditional model (Klein, 1996), Van Riper’s Phonetic Placement Approach may be more useful for individuals who are not able to achieve adequate articulatory placement (Van Riper, 1978) using a phonological approach.

    Placement cues are based on traditional therapy models which often rely on the concept that an individual can copy a motor plan suggested by a therapist, such as “place your tongue tip to the spot.” Therapists, however, often struggle with a population of individuals who do not respond well to “look at me and say what I say,” and those individuals often require a tactile-kinesthetic approach to treatment (Bahr & Rosenfeld-Johnson, 2010.) Individuals with dysarthria, dyspraxia (called Childhood Apraxia of Speech in the United States), and/or myofunctional disorders may make slow progress, or no progress at all, without the assistance of tactile-proprioceptive cues. Even though therapists have heard the debate about oral sensory-motor therapy (Bowen, 2005; Lof, 2006, 2007, 2009), clinicians are still widely using phonetic placement and oral placement techniques because they yield positive treatment outcomes (Bahr, 2008).

    Clinicians on the Board of Directors for the Oral Motor Institute have struggled with articles equating “oral motor therapy” with what some have called “Non Speech Oral Motor Exercises” (NSOME) seemingly coined by Gregory Lof (Lof, 2009). The term “Oral Placement Disorders” (OPD) was coined by Diane Bahr and Sara Rosenfeld-Johnson in 2010 (Bahr & Rosenfeld-Johnson, 2010). Children with OPD cannot imitate targeted speech sounds using auditory and visual stimuli (i.e., “Look, listen, and say what I say”). They also cannot follow specific instructions to produce targeted speech sounds (e.g., “Put your lips together, and say m”). Although the term OPD is new, the concepts surrounding the term have been discussed by a number of authors and clinicians (Bahr, 2001; DeThorne, Johnson, Walder, & Mahurin-Smith, 2009; Hammer, 2007; Hayden, 2004, 2006; Kaufman, 2005; Marshalla, 2004; Meek, 1994; Ridley, 2008; Rosenfeld-Johnson, 1999, 2009; Strand, Stoeckel, & Baas, 2006).

    There has been question and ongoing confusion regarding the definition of NSOME versus the definition of oral placement techniques (Bahr & Rosenfeld-Johnson 2010). Oral Placement Therapy (OPT) is a tactile teaching technique used for children and adults with Oral Placement Disorders (e.g., dysarthria) who cannot learn standard speech sound production using auditory and visual teaching methods alone. OPT facilitates the pre-requisite skills in muscle control to develop dissociation and grading in the muscles of the abdomen, velum, jaw, lips, and tongue for clients who cannot approximate standard speech sounds using instructions. If the client can produce standard speech with adequate oral placement and sound duration using auditory and visual cueing only, OPT would not be included in that client’s program plan.

    OPT is a modern extension of Phonetic Placement Therapy (Van Riper, 1954) and The Feedback Model (Mysak, 1971). It is based on a very common sequence (Bahr 2001; Green, Moore, & Reilly, 2000; Hayden 2004; Marshalla 2007; Young and Hawk 1955):

    • Facilitate speech movement with the assistance of a therapy tool (e.g., horn, tongue depressor) or a tactile-kinesthetic facilitation technique (e.g., PROMPT oral cue)
    • Facilitate speech movement without the therapy tool and/or tactile-kinesthetic technique (cue fading)
    • Immediately transition the movement into speech with and without therapy tools and/or tactile-kinesthetic techniques

    Lof has stated that the methods used in Van Riper’s Phonetic Placement Approach are not in fact considered NSOME (Lof, 2009). This is why it is important to explore current clinical techniques to determine which activities are considered unrelated to speech production, as opposed to those activities that, in fact, are an extension of Phonetic Placement Therapy (Marshalla, 2007).

    Many therapists commented that they use these tools in treatment and feel they work. Others commented that they do not use the tools because they were told by colleagues that “non-speech oral motor exercises (NSOME)” were not evidenced based. I was able to discuss this debate and define the difference between NSOME and OPT. This debate is thoroughly discussed in a prior blog I wrote with Diane Bahr and in many monographs found on the Oral Motor Institute website.

    With podcasts (e.g., this one), ASHA presentations (e.g., this one), and the efforts of the Oral Motor Institute, there is certainly some progress being made in defining effective versus ineffective oral sensory-motor treatment. Therapists at the conference were not aware of the many resources available on this topic, so the Poster Session served its purpose in educating therapists on the most recent information.

    Another course at the same conference entitled Back in Time: Revisiting Motor-Based Treatment for Speech Sound Disorders by Sherry Sancibrian, MS, CCC-SLP, BCS-CL also discussed Van Riper and Phonetic Placement. Sherry brought attention to the “old” methods of pre-practice and placement (i.e., targets in sounds, syllables, etc.), versus the new methods of concurrent treatment in which the therapist targets random levels of difficulty rather than follow the traditional hierarchy of sounds, syllables, words, etc. According to Sherry, therapists are still using tactile-kinesthetic cues such as dental flossers, craft sticks, and straws to help elicit correct placement for target sounds.

    The exhibit hall was also an indication that therapists are using tactile-proprioceptive cues in therapy. Sandra Holtzman and Karen Masters were busy at the Orofacial Myology table helping therapists learn to measure lingual range of motion and use of tactile-proprioceptive cues in Orofacial Myofunctional therapy. Lori Overland and I were assisting therapists at the TalkTools table and gave a seminar on Self-Limited Diets in Children on the Autism Spectrum. Artic-Bites highlighted the Bite-R device which is patented and FDA approved. Overall it was a successful and wonderful conference!

    About the Author

    TalkTools | RobynRobyn Merkel-Walsh, MA, CCC-SLP has specialized for over 22 years in feeding, oral placement, and myofunctional disorders in children. She is employed by the Ridgefield Board of Education, runs a private practice in Ridgefield, NJ, is the board chair of the Oral Motor Institute, serves on the NJSHA Board of Directors, and is a member of the TalkTools® Speakers Bureau. She teaches OPT, Autism, and Tongue Thrust classes that have been offered for ASHA CEUs and has been invited to speak on Oral Placement Disorders by Conversations in Speech Pathology, Bergen County Region V, the International Association of Orofacial Myology, The Apraxia Network, AAPPSPA, and the MOSAIC Foundation. Robyn has received specialized training in Oral Placement Disorders, feeding, apraxia, Applied Behavioral Analysis, autism, cranio-facial anomalies, Beckman Techniques, and PROMPT.

    Meet her! Oct. 15, 2016 in Cape Coral, FL  |  Nov. 6, 2016 in Queens, NY |  Nov. 12, 2016 in San Juan, PR 

    About the Blog Owner

    TalkTools | DianeDiane Bahr, MS, CCC-SLP, CIMI is a certified Speech-Language Pathologist and infant massage instructor. She has practiced Speech-Language Pathology since 1980 and has been a feeding therapist since 1983. Her experiences include teaching Graduate, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education courses; working with children and adults who exhibit a variety of speech, language, feeding, and swallowing disorders; and publishing/presenting information on oral sensory-motor function, assessment and treatment. She is the author of the textbook Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment: Ages and Stages (Allyn & Bacon, 2001). She has also written a book for parents entitled Nobody Ever Told Me (Or My Mother) That! Everything from Bottles and Breathing to Healthy Speech Development (Sensory World, 2010). Diane maintains a private practice, writes articles appearing in a variety of publications, is interviewed frequently on radio and in magazines, and is an international presenter.

    Meet her! Dec. 8-10 in New York, NY

    For a copy of the poster A Modern Look at Van Riper’s Phonetic Placement Approach, please click here.


    Bahr, D. (2008). The oral motor debate: Where do we go from here? Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Chicago, IL.

    Bahr, D. C. (2001). Oral motor assessment and treatment: Ages and stages. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Bahr, D., & Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2010, May). Treatment of children with speech oral placement disorders (OPDs): A paradigm emerges.Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31(3), 131-138.

    Bowen, C. (2005). What is the evidence for oral motor therapy? Acquiring Knowledge in Speech, Language and Hearing, 7(3), 144-147.

    DeThorne, L. S., Johnson, C. J., Walder, L., & Mahurin-Smith, J. (2009). When "Simon Says" doesn't work: Alternatives to imitation for facilitating early speech development. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18, 133-145.

    Green. R., Moore, C. A., & Reilly, K.J. (2000). The sequential development of jaw and lip control for speech. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 45, 66-79.

    Hammer, D. W. (2007). Childhood apraxia of speech: New perspectives on assessment and treatment [Workshop]. Las Vegas, NV: The Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association.

    Hayden, D. A. (2004). PROMPT: A tactually grounded treatment approach to speech production disorders. In I. Stockman (Ed.), Movement and action in learning and development: Clinical implications for pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 255-297). San Diego, CA: Elsevier-Academic Press.

    Hayden, D. A. (2006). The PROMPT model: Use and application for children with mixed phonological-motor impairment. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 8(3), 265-281.

    Hodge, M. M. (2002). Non-speech oral motor treatment approaches for dysarthria: Perspectives on controversial clinical practices. Perspectives in Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech Disorders, 12(4), 22-28.

    Kaufman, N. R. (2005). The Kaufman speech praxis workout book: Treatment materials & a home program for childhood apraxia of speech. Gaylord, MI: National Rehabilitation Services.

    Klein, E. S. (1996.) Phonological/traditional approaches to articulation therapy. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 314-323.

    Lof, G.L. (2009). Nonspeech oral motor exercises: An update on the controversy. Presentation at ASHA Annual Convention, New Orleans, LA.

    Lof, G.L. (2007). Reasons why non-speech oral motor exercises should not be used for speech sound disorders. Presentation at the ASHA Annual Convention, Boston, MA.

    Lof, G.L. (2006). Logic, theory and evidence against the use of non-speech oral-motor exercises to change speech sound productions. Presentation at the ASHA Annual Convention, Miami, FL.

    Marshalla, P. (2007). Oral Motor Techniques Are Not New. Oral Motor Institute, 1(1).

    Marshalla, P. (2004). Oral-motor techniques in articulation & phonological therapy. Mill Creek, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.

    Meek, M. M. (1994). Motokinesthetic approach [Video Series]. Albuquerque, NM: Clinician’s View.

    Mysak, E. (1971). Speech pathology and feedback therapy. Charles C. Thompson Publisher.

    Ridley, D. (2008). Treatment of speech production disorders and problem phonemes: Getting to carryover [Workshop]. Saint Louis, MO: Ages and Stages, LLC.

    Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2009). Oral placement therapy for speech clarity and feeding (rev. 4th ed.). Tucson, AZ: Innovative Therapists International.

    Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (1999). Oral-motor exercises for speech clarity. Tucson, AZ: Innovative Therapists International

    Sancibrian, S. (2016). Back in time: Revisiting motor-based treatment for speech sound disorders. Presentation at ASHA Connect Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

    Strand, E., Stoeckel, R., & Baas, B. (2006). Treatment of severe childhood apraxia of speech: A treatment efficacy study. Journal of Medical Speech Pathology, 14, 297-307.

    Van Riper, C. (1978, 1954, 1947) Speech Correction: Principles and Methods. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

    Young, E. H., & Hawk, S. S. (1955). Moto-kinesthetic speech training. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

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    TalkTools Workshop Hosts Speak Up

    Posted by Deborah Grauzam on

    "Everyone really enjoyed the course.  All of the feedback I’ve gotten has also been positive.  Lori did a wonderful job presenting.  Chad did a great job handling everything on site.  It all went very smoothly.  And Linda was great to work with as well.  I appreciate all her help as we were getting ready for the course. We wanted to share one story with you from the weekend. One of our SLP’s was unable to make the first day because her child was sick and Chad and Linda took care of her.  She was able to watch a presentation of the first day on line at home and join everyone on the second day.  I got the following text from her around lunchtime that day “These people are wonderful!!!! They sent me great email with easy steps to follow and then called me to follow up.  I am watching the video now and will try to be ready tomorrow.  Loving the great customer service from TalkTools and SpeakAbility.”  We really appreciated all they did to help her. And we were also pleased with how good it was for our company.  Thank you for asking us to host the course."

            ~ Frances, Host in Charlotte

    "The interest that the course of last Saturday generated was so high that some professionals are talking about traveling to continue with deeper training. The demand is there, the opportunity is real."

          ~ Nellie, Host in Puerto Rico

    "We have already seen improvement with many of our clients using the skills Monica taught us!"

          ~ Erica, Host in San Diego

    These testimonials come from organizations that hosted a TalkTools® workshop in their facility. What it means is that you host the workshop of your choice (see the list below) at your facility, TalkTools® provides all learning material and markets it to professionals in your region. Hosts can be private practices, non-profit organizations, parent groups, or other types of organizations able to meet the requirements. This is how we get to travel across the country (and more!) to train therapists of all horizons.

    Here's a list of workshops available for hosting:

    • A Three-Part Treatment Plan for Oral Placement Therapy (1.2 CEU)
    • Feeding Therapy: A Sensory-Motor Approach (1.2 CEU)
    • A Sensory Motor Approach to Apraxia of Speech and Related Motor Speech Disorders (1.2 CEU)
    • Oral Placement Therapy: Assessment and Program Plan Development (1.2 CEU)
    • Developing Oral Sensory Motor Skills to Support Feeding in the Down Syndrome Population (0.6 CEU)
    • Rehabilitative Feeding and Speech Techniques for Teens and Adults (0.6 CEU)
    • Oral Placement Therapy to Improve Speech Clarity and Feeding Skills (0.6 CEU)
    • Pediatric Dysphagia: Interpreting the MBSS and Planning Treatment (0.6 CEU)
    • Adult Dysphagia: Interpreting the MBSS and Planning Treatment (0.6 CEU)
    • Oral Placement to Speech: Transitioning Muscle Memory into Speech Sound Production (0.6 CEU)
    • Partnering Effectively with Parents: Maximize the Potential of Children Receiving Therapy (0.6 CEU)
    • Solving the Puzzle of Autism: Using Tactile Therapy Techniques (0.6 CEU)
    • Oral Placement Therapy: Clinical Implications for Tongue Thrust and Lisp (0.6 CEU)
    • Sensory Intervention Techniques for Speech-Language Pathologists (0.6 CEU)
    TalkTools® in Numbers: 
    • TalkTools® has been known for its quality, clinically relevant Continuing Education since 1996.
    • 75,000+ SLPs have attended our workshops with over 95% recommending them to their colleagues.
    • Our email database has over 30,000 contacts, with the possibility to send geo-targeted campaigns.
    Benefits of Hosting a Workshop for an Organization:
    • EDUCATE YOUR STAFF with unique learning material, appropriate CEUs, free products and other advantages.
    • BE A KNOWLEDGE GENERATOR by educating your audience to cutting edge clinical strategies that can be implemented right away.
    • DEVELOP PUBLIC RELATIONS with professionals and families affected by speech and feeding disabilities in your community.
    To learn more, read our Host Packet here.  
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    TalkTools sponsors a Speech Therapy and Occupational Therapy trip to Ukraine

    Posted by Deborah Grauzam on

    Last November, TalkTools sponsored a mission trip to Ukraine made by five Curtin University Health Sciences (Australia) Alumni, through the program "Go Global." They trained parents of children with Speech Therapy and Occupational Therapy needs, partly using products donated by TalkTools. Here is how it went, in their own words.

    TalkTools | Speech Therapy and Occupational Therapy trip to Ukraine TalkTools | Speech Therapy and Occupational Therapy trip to Ukraine TalkTools | Speech Therapy and Occupational Therapy trip to Ukraine

    Photographs from left to right:

    1. Speech Therapist Shelby Walquist introduces TalkTools to the staff at Dzherelo Centre, Lviv, Ukraine.
    2. Shelby trouble shooting feeding issues with a child at the Dzherelo Centre.
    3. The Alumni Team at the Dzherelo Centre, from left to right: Shelby Walquist (Speech), Kirrily Manning (Program Coordinator/OT), Simone Bunter (OT), Sarah Marchetti (OT) and Emma McKinley (Speech).

      "From 2008-2013 over 80 allied health students visited Ukraine as part of the Curtin University “Go Global” student clinical placement program.  The program was suspended and later disbanded in 2014 when Ukraine became more known internationally for all the wrong reasons.  No one could have predicted so many lives would be impacted by the subsequent Russian invasion, including those of thousands of babies and children abandoned in Ukraine's many orphanages.

      However something gets under your skin when you work with such beautiful children and dedicated yet desperate carers that when Go Global Program Coordinator, Kirrily Manning, decided to return, her heart was not the only one moved to find a way to keep the work alive.  She was joined in November 2015 by four Curtin Alumni, two Speech Therapists and two Occupational Therapists.  Taking annual leave and paying their own expenses, these dedicated young women spent a week working at Dzherelo Centre, Lviv.

      At the request of Dzherelo senior therapists, a two-day staff training workshop was provided in the development of the function of feeding, as well as assessing feeding difficulties and tailoring intervention strategies. In addition, a half-day workshop for parents was provided.  Speech Therapist Shelby Walquist delivered the training with technical and moral support from colleague Emma McKinley.  Occupational Therapists Simone Bunter and Sarah Marchetti attended the sessions, providing advice about supportive feeding equipment and promoting and explaining a profession that does not yet exist in Ukraine.

      The staff at the centre responded so well to the new information provided. There were opportunities throughout the training to trouble shoot particular clients and situations. Through these discussions it was found that most of the students were still performing a suckle. Shelby discussed how staff could use different equipment and exercises from TalkTools to turn mealtimes into therapy to support the children in developing their oromotor skills. All of the children that the Alumni had an opportunity to work with required support with the strength and coordination of their jaw. Chewy Tubes with the pre-feeding chewy hierarchy were trialed successfully and the team is excited to hear how the students are going over the next few months.

      In addition, collegial meetings were held with The Lviv Catholic University, Polytechnic University and Military Hospital.

      The team learnt so much and gained valuable experience. They are now busy discussing the possibility of another trip for 2016 when one hopes the conflict has resolved to the point where they could also return to orphanages in the East of Ukraine.

      A special thanks to TalkTools for their generous donation of equipment which made such an incredible difference in the lives of the children at the Centre. Thank you!"

      ~ Shelby Ellen Walquist

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