Tongue-Tie and Speech Clarity Resources

Robyn Merkel-Walsh, MA, CCC-SLP/COM®

Speech and TOTs: What We Think We Know

Poster Presentation at IAOM 2019, New Orleans, LA. 




American Speech–Language and Hearing Association. (2018). Practice Portal: Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders-Assessment. Retrieved from :
Amir, L.H., James, J.P. & Donath, S.M. (2006). Reliability of the Hazelbaker assessment tool for lingual frenulum function. International Breastfeeding Journal, 1(3).
Baxter, R. & Hughes, L. (2018). Speech and feeding improvements in children after posterior tongue-tie release: a case series. International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, 7(3), 29-35.
Browne, D. (1959). Tongue-Tie. BR, Med. J.,2:1181-1182.
Chinnadurai, S., Francis, D., Epstein, R., Morad, A., Kohanim, S., & McPheeters, M. (2015). Treatment of ankyloglossia for reasons other than breastfeeding: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 135(6), e1467-e1474.
Ghaheri, B. (2014). How to examine a baby for tongue-tie or lip-tie. Retrieved from :
Isaacson, G.C., Messner, A.H. & Armsby, C. (2017). Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in infants and children. Retrieved from:
Ferret-Amat, E., Pastor-Vera, T., Mareque-Bueno, J., Prats-Armengol. J. & Ferres-Padro, E. (2016). Multidisciplinary management of ankyloglossia in childhood. Treatment of 101 cases. A protocol. Journal of Oral Medicine and Pathology, 1:21 (1):39-47
Martinelli,R., Marchesan, I.  & Berretin-Felix,G. (2018). Posterior lingual frenulum in infants: occurrence and maneuver for visual inspection. Revista CEFAC, 20(4):478-483.
Meaux, A., Savage, M., & Gonsoulin, C. (2016).  Tongue ties and speech sound disorders: what are we overlooking?  Poster session at The American Speech and Hearing Association, Philadelphia, PA.
Merdad H. & Mascarenhas, A,K. (2013). Ankyloglossia may cause breastfeeding, tongue mobility, and speech difficulties, with inconclusive results on treatment choices. Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice, 10(3):152-3.
Merkel-Walsh, R. & Overland, L. (2018a). TOTS: a hot topic. Live Presentation at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association, Boston, MA.
Merkel-Walsh, R. & Overland, L.L. (2018b). The functional assessment and remediation of tethered oral tissues. Charleston, SC: TalkTools.
Messner, A.H. & Lalaka, M.L. (2002). The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolyryngology Head & Neck, 127(5): 539-545.
Messner, A.H. & Lalakea, M.L. (2000). Ankyloglossia: controversies in management. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolayryngology, 54(2):123-31.
Oldfield, M.C. (1959). Tongue-tie. Br Med. J. 2: 952.
Webb, A.N., Hao, W., & Hong, P. (2013). The effect of tongue-tie division on breastfeeding and speech articulation: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 77, 635-646.
Williams, W.N. & Waldron, C.M. (1985). Assessment of lingual function when ankyloglossia (tongue-tie)is suspected. J Am Dent Assoc., 110(3):353-6.